Methyl Sulfonil Methane (MSM)
It is the natural form of organic sulfur, present in body in small concentrations, in body fluids and tissues. The MSM is very bioavailable and is an essential component of diet. The sulfur is an important constituent of enzymes and immunoglobulins and is important for the formation and the balance of nutrients of connective tissues, hair and nails. The MSM performs multiple functions. It is an effective anti-allergic: it covers the mucous membrane receptors thus preventing the access to allergens. It increases the elasticity of skin and connective tissue. It has also shown to be effective in the treatment of acne, burns and skin damage caused by aging. Also the excess scar tissue, thanks to the action of MSM becomes more soft and aesthetically pleasing. The MSM also potentiates the action of most of the vitamins and other nutrients (C, A, D, E, B vitamins, coenzyme Q10, amino acids, selenium, calcium, magnesium etc .), it improves the absorption capacity of these nutrients, prolonging their effectiveness. The MSM has also a high antioxidant activity, which is expressed by inactivating free radicals and is essential for the proper functioning of all the body’s antioxidant system. It provides sulfur for sulfur amino acids (methionine, cysteine ​) and for the formation of glutathione, another potent antioxidant of the body. It also promotes the increased permeability of cell membranes, facilitating the absorption of nutrients and elimination of toxins from the cells.

It is an essential amino acid. Its function in the human body is carried out in various tissues. In the scalp it plays an important structural function. In fact, together with cysteine is indispensable for the formation of keratin therefore the combination of these two amino acids helps to keep the hair shaft soft and consistent. A diet low in cysteine ​​and methionine experimentally results in a marked decrease of the production of pilaris tissue.

It is the sulfur amino acid with the highest sulfur content. Its presence is essential to stimulate growth and ensure strength and stiffness to the hair. In fact it has in its structure a very stable S-S bond which confers resistance to the keratin. Thus it appears to be an essential amino acid for the process of keratinization, and is present in large amounts even in the outer layer of the hair cuticle. Laboratory tests have confirmed in fact that a deficiency of cysteine ​​leads to a reduction of hair growth and to their weakening.

Tocomax 20% ™
Sono composti naturali contenuti in molti alimenti soprattutto di origine vegetale, tra cui la fonte più importante è il frutto della palma (Elaeis guineensis), dal quale si ottiene una frazione arricchita di fito-tocotrienoliI. I tocotrienoli sono in grado di prevenire l’ossidazione del collagene presente a livello dermico; sono potenti antiossidanti, e conferiscono un’elevata protezione verso i danni ossidativi indotti dai radicali liberi, in particolare derivanti da radiazioni attiniche o generati dall’inquinamento ambientale. Inoltre i tocotrienoli hanno mostrato potenzialità utili per la bellezza e la cura dei capelli in quanto sembrano esibire non solo un effetto protettivo sulla struttura del capello ma anche un’azione stimolante sulla crescita. I tocotrienoli hanno la capacità di penetrare rapidamente nella pelle, e accumularsi nello strato corneo. Anche la somministrazione sistemica di tocotrienoli, attraverso l’integrazione alimentare, ne aumenta la concentrazione a livello cutaneo intensificando l’effetto protettivo verso i danni ossidativi.

It is a polyphenol belonging to the family of bioflavonoids, present in nature in many plants (lemon, grape, eucalyptus, mint) and formed by a flavonol (quercetin) and a disaccharide. Rutin acts as vasoprotector strengthening the integrity of the capillary wall and regulating their permeability. This allows to provide a proper supply of nutrients to the cells of the scalp. It exerts a cytoprotective effect because it integrates, like other bioflavonoids, within the phospholipidic bilayer of the cell membranes thus protecting the structure. It has an anti-inflammatory activity exercised in the mast cells, stabilizing their membrane, and preventing their degranulation and the release of inflammatory mediators, particularly of histamine.
However, the main activity of rutin is that antioxidant counteracting the formation of free radicals. The presence of vitamin C enhances the capillary-protective, antioxidant and antiviral activity of rutin.

Vitamin C
It is a water soluble vitamin also known as ascorbic acid which shows a strong antioxidant activity, thanks to which it is able to neutralize most of free radicals responsible of degenerative cellular reactions of the organism, including the aging process, acting as a redox system: it oxidizes and reversibly reduces by ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid. Moreover it enhances and increases the action of other vitamins in particular of vitamin E. It is required for the synthesis of collagen through the hydroxylation of two amino acids, proline and lysine, which allow the transformation of proto-collagen in collagen, so it is responsible for the trophism of the skin, muscles and bones. Vitamin C strengthens the function of phagocytes, increases the production of antibodies thus enhancing the immune system. The ascorbic acid is also able to promote the absorption of iron and other essential metals (Zinc, Magnesium, Calcium) from the intestine, and is an important cofactor for the conversion of folic acid into folinic acid. In case of deficiency of vitamin C you can have a chronic telogen effluvium due both to the lack of typical activities of the vitamin that to reduced intestinal absorption of essential metals.

Vitamin E
It is the antioxidant vitamin for excellence and is involved in the protection of both cellular and intracellular membranes, which occurs thanks to the stabilizing action of methyl groups, contained in its molecule, in respect of the phospholipids that capture the oxygen molecules and reduce its cellular consumption. It is involved in the formation and turnover of collagen fibers, of the fundamental substance of connective tissue, of smooth and striated muscle. It is also involved in cellular respiration in mitochondria, and is therefore necessary for the production of energy in protein synthesis. It has been observed that vitamin E causes a strengthening of the hair thanks to its antioxidant activity which helps to keep the immune system active and to improve the blood circulation also in the scalp, favoring the absorption of nutrients.

Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
It is a vitamin whose name derives from the greek pantos, which means ” wherever ” because it is widespread in nature. It is involved in cellular metabolism, has a significant role especially in the constitution of coenzyme A which participates in the energy metabolism of fatty acids. It regulates the normal function of the adrenal glands and helps to strengthen the defenses of skin and mucous membranes. Its deficiency is observed mainly in cases of severe malnutrition, with symptoms such as headache, insomnia, fatigue and hair loss. The daily requirement for adults is 12-15 mg.

Vitamin B6
The vitamin B6 includes three compounds with similar vitamin activity: pyridoxine, pyridoxal and the pyridoxamine. It is found in various foods such as liver, fish, meat, milk, eggs, cereals, legumes, potatoes, etc. and the daily requirement for adults is about 1.5 mg. It exerts multiple functions. In fact it is involved in the carbohydrates, lipids and proteins metabolism. It is involved in the synthesis of red blood cells and hemoglobin; it stimulates the production of antibodies and is involved in the formation of neurotransmitters, in the production of hormones (adrenaline and insulin) and in the metabolization of iron. It exerts antiallergic and antihistaminic activity resulting therefore useful in case of asthma and allergies in particular when combined with other vitamins, selenium and other antioxidants minerals. It acts synergistically with magnesium. It is excreted in the urine. Its deficiency is highlighted by stomatitis, eczema, dermatitis, irritability, tremors and muscle cramps.

Folic acid (Vitamin B9)
It is a vitamin found in cereals, brewer’s yeast, liver, in the leaves of plants, especially in spinach. After being absorbed in the intestine, folic acid is activated by the liver, which turns it into folinic acid, distributes it to the various tissues or possibly deposits it as a reserve.
Vitamin B9 is essential to human life and many other organisms. Folic acid and its derivatives in fact are involved in the synthesis of nucleic acids, hemoglobin and certain amino acids, such as methionine and glutamic acid, very important for growth, reproduction and for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Together with vitamin B12 it shares many functions including the best known is the anti-anemic. It acts as a coenzyme, together with vitamin B12, in the decomposition and utilization of proteins.
Deficiency of folic acid deficiency causes a slowdown in growth, graying of hair, glossitis, gastrointestinal disorders caused by poor diet and metabolic disorders.

It is a water-soluble vitamin belonging to the B group vitamin (it is in fact also known as vitamin B8 or vitamin H). Biotin is an essential nutrient present in small quantities in all tissues where it plays the role of coenzyme (coenzyme R) without which some enzymes, such as carboxylase, would not do adequately their functions. Those enzymes are in fact involved in the biosynthetic pathway of fatty acids, in gluconeogenesis, in the catabolism of amino acids and fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms, in the catabolism of leucine, and in DNA replication. Biotin is also required for the synthesis of vitamin C; promotes cell activity and growth; it influence the activity of folic acid, pantothenic acid and vitamin B12 and it is critical to the integrity of skin and hair, promoting growth and preventing graying and baldness. Its deficiency, caused by insufficient assumption or diet, causes rash and desquamation, mucosal inflammation, seborrheic eczema, nervous system disorders, hair loss and immunosuppression.

It is an essential element in the life of human beings. It is present in trace amounts in our body (from 1.5 to 2.5 g), especially in bones, teeth, skin, liver, muscles and hair, and its daily requirement is between 7 and 10 mg. It is found mainly in foods such as meat, nuts, egg yolk, mushrooms, cocoa although its intestinal absorption does not exceed 30%. Zinc is involved in the beta chain of hemoglobin, is implicated in the development of the gonads, in nerve functions and memory. It is part of insulin, of protein with a zinc-finger structure and acts as a cofactor for the functioning of many enzymes involved in cellular metabolism and also in those with antioxidant activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), so it is active mainly in the mechanisms of protection from damage induced by free radicals. So its deficiency affects so much body growth. It is in relation with the normal absorption and action of vitamins, especially those of B-complex. It inhibits the activity of the 5-alpha reductase enzyme up to 30%, and if it is associated with pyridoxine (vitamin B6) increases the effectiveness. Zinc finally activates the synthesis of keratin from cystine.

It is an important trace element involved in the protection of cells due to its antioxidant activity that enables its to counteract the damage induced by free radicals. It acts mainly in association with the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase, which in turn operates together with vitamin E in protecting cells from oxidative damage. It helps to strengthen the immune system, prevents cardiovascular disease, protects the skin, eyes and hair.

It is an essential cofactor together with iron for hemoglobin formation and for the activity of enzymes such as cytochrome C oxidase and especially the Super Oxide Dismutase (Cu -Zn- SOD) that protect the body against free radicals. In hair, copper is essential to catalyze the conversion of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), by the tyrosine-hydroxylase enzyme, during the formation of melanin. Copper also has a significant importance for the keratinization, catalyzing the oxidation of cysteine ​​to cystine with formation of disulfide bonds.
In adult humans, the requirement for copper is about 4 mg a day, and it is particularly pleased with meat and vegetables present in the feed. In case of inadequate supply of copper, hair becomes sparse, thin, brittle, with Trichorrhexis up to hypotrichia and alopecia.

It is a mineral that is found in moderate amounts in cereals and nuts, in smaller amounts in vegetables, while it is low in foods of animal origin. The daily requirement varies between 1 and 10 mg. Manganese deficiency causes weight loss and slow hair growth. Manganese is involved in the formation of enzymes involved in the metabolism of proteins and carbohydrates and is also essential for the proper development of bones.

Thanks to the pool of its active suitably associated Tetragen is able to:

  • Promote the trophism of the cells of the scalp in case of nutritional deficiencies mainly qualitative (FFA, vitamins, iron) which are often important cause of hair loss (Defluvium)
  • Also allows to counteract the alterations of the follicle such as: thickening of the connective sheath, changes in the microcirculation of the perifollicular zone, perifollicular inflammation and miniaturization of the follicle, slowing the thinning of hair and stopping their fall
  • It allows the synthesis of keratin thanks to sulfur aminoacids; protect tissues and cell membranes and prevent depigmentation of hair thanks to vitamins; allow to remineralize the structure of hair in order to increase their resistance and brightness
  • It is also recommended to promote re-growth of nails.