Joints and their Disorders


From an anatomical point of view the joints are junctional devices between bone heads interconnected by connective tissues . Depending on their different mobility, may be of the mobile type (eg. knee joint or shoulder), semi-mobile (between the vertebrae) or immobile (skull bones) . More precisely are divided into:

Structure and function of the joint

In healthy articulation, bones slide in a regular and correct each other. The ends of the bones are covered with cartilage, a slippery tissue that provides a point of contact with low friction and shock absorbing properties. The joint is made ​​up of many structures that interact to form a functional unit. The basic and vital components are: the underlying bone supporting the joint, the muscles that convey movement, and the nerves that control, analyze, and provide a response in relation to these movements. The joint is also surrounded by a hard capsule, often further stabilized by the ligaments. The inner lining of the capsule, the synovial membrane, rich in blood vessels, plays an important role in the joint. Then the structures of the joint are:

Joints disorders

The physiological joints disorders are generically called rheumatism or arthritis and include a number of diseases with very different causes and symptoms, and may be inflammatory or degenerative. In fact, according to the Arthritis Foundation, the term “arthritis” refers to more than 100 different disorders that cause pain, swelling and limited movement of the joints, so that arthritis in the Western world is in second place, after cardiovascular diseases as a cause of disability.
The most common forms of arthritis are: