Joints and their Disorders


From an anatomical point of view the joints are junctional devices between bone heads interconnected by connective tissues . Depending on their different mobility, may be of the mobile type (eg. knee joint or shoulder), semi-mobile (between the vertebrae) or immobile (skull bones) . More precisely are divided into:

Structure and function of the joint

In healthy articulation, bones slide in a regular and correct each other. The ends of the bones are covered with cartilage, a slippery tissue that provides a point of contact with low friction and shock absorbing properties. The joint is made ​​up of many structures that interact to form a functional unit. The basic and vital components are: the underlying bone supporting the joint, the muscles that convey movement, and the nerves that control, analyze, and provide a response in relation to these movements. The joint is also surrounded by a hard capsule, often further stabilized by the ligaments. The inner lining of the capsule, the synovial membrane, rich in blood vessels, plays an important role in the joint. Then the structures of the joint are:

Joints disorders

The physiological joints disorders are generically called rheumatism or arthritis and include a number of diseases with very different causes and symptoms, and may be inflammatory or degenerative. In fact, according to the Arthritis Foundation, the term “arthritis” refers to more than 100 different disorders that cause pain, swelling and limited movement of the joints, so that arthritis in the Western world is in second place, after cardiovascular diseases as a cause of disability.
The most common forms of arthritis are:

RSS Journal of Orthopedic Trauma

  • Risk Factors for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Acute Trauma Patients June 1, 2021
    Objective: To identify risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic injury. Setting: Single urban Level I trauma center. Design: Prospective. Patients/Participants: Three hundred men (66%) and 152 women treated for traumatic injuries were administered the PTSD checklist for a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (PCL-5) survey during their first […]
  • Surgical Fixation of Quadrimalleolar Fractures of the Ankle June 1, 2021
    Summary: We present a technique of fixation of trimalleolar fractures with additional fracture of the anterior tibial tubercle (“quadrimalleolar”) or anterior fibular rim (“quadrimalleolar equivalent”). Twenty-four patients with a mean age of 60 years were treated with open reduction and internal fixation of all 4 malleoli. There were 17 quadrimalleolar and 6 quadrimalleolar equivalent fractures. […]
  • Supination Adduction Ankle Fractures Are Associated With Arthritis and Poor Outcomes June 1, 2021
    Objective: To compare complications and functional outcomes between supination adduction type II (SAD) injuries and torsional ankle injuries (TAI). Design: Retrospective cohort. Setting: Level 1 trauma center. Patients and Methods: Patients (n = 1531) treated for ankle fractures (OTA/AO 43B or 44) over 16 years were identified. The most recent 200 consecutive adult patients treated […]
  • Radial Head Replacement for Acute Radial Head Fractures: Outcome and Survival of Three Implant Designs With and Without Cement Fixation June 1, 2021
    Objectives: To determine outcomes of radial head replacement (RHR) for acute fractures using 3 different implant designs with or without cement fixation. Design: Retrospective. Setting: Tertiary referral hospital. Patients/Participants: One hundred fourteen elbows underwent RHR for an acute radial head fracture using either (1) a nonanatomic design and smooth stem (n = 60), (2) a […]
  • Clinical Correlation of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association Open Fracture Classification With Wound Closure and Soft-Tissue Complications in Open Upper Extremity Fractures June 1, 2021
    Objectives: To correlate domains of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association Open Fracture Classification (OTA-OFC) in open upper extremity injuries with type of definitive soft-tissue closure, complication rates, and unanticipated return to the operating room for complication. Design: Retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Setting: Level I trauma center. Patients: Two hundred thirty-four consecutive open upper extremity […]