Joints and their Disorders


From an anatomical point of view the joints are junctional devices between bone heads interconnected by connective tissues . Depending on their different mobility, may be of the mobile type (eg. knee joint or shoulder), semi-mobile (between the vertebrae) or immobile (skull bones) . More precisely are divided into:

Structure and function of the joint

In healthy articulation, bones slide in a regular and correct each other. The ends of the bones are covered with cartilage, a slippery tissue that provides a point of contact with low friction and shock absorbing properties. The joint is made ​​up of many structures that interact to form a functional unit. The basic and vital components are: the underlying bone supporting the joint, the muscles that convey movement, and the nerves that control, analyze, and provide a response in relation to these movements. The joint is also surrounded by a hard capsule, often further stabilized by the ligaments. The inner lining of the capsule, the synovial membrane, rich in blood vessels, plays an important role in the joint. Then the structures of the joint are:

Joints disorders

The physiological joints disorders are generically called rheumatism or arthritis and include a number of diseases with very different causes and symptoms, and may be inflammatory or degenerative. In fact, according to the Arthritis Foundation, the term “arthritis” refers to more than 100 different disorders that cause pain, swelling and limited movement of the joints, so that arthritis in the Western world is in second place, after cardiovascular diseases as a cause of disability.
The most common forms of arthritis are:

RSS Journal of Orthopedic Trauma

  • Deltoid-Sparing Modified Judet Approach: Technique and Clinical Series April 1, 2023
    Summary: Posterior approaches provide the mainstay for treatment in most of the scapula body and neck fractures, even those associated with many intraarticular variants. Several posterior approach modifications for minimizing soft-tissue damage and limiting muscular detachment, have previously been described in the literature; however, little or no clinical evidence is available specifically applied to the […]
  • How Many Patients Do We Need? Predictors of Consent to Participate in Clinical Research Studies in Orthopaedic Trauma April 1, 2023
    Objectives: To characterize the recruitment rates at a Level I trauma center enroling for multiple prospective orthopaedic trauma research studies and identify patient-related and study-related predictors of consent. Design: We conducted a case–control study to identify predictors of study consent. The authors categorized studies based on intensity of the study intervention (low, intermediate, or high). […]
  • Technical Trick: Supplemental Medial Column Screw Fixation of Distal Femur Fractures Treated With a Laterally Based Locked Plate April 1, 2023
    Summary: Given known failure rates after lateral plating of distal femur fractures, there is an increasing interest in augmenting fixation to improve outcomes. The addition of medial plates or intramedullary nails have been described with promising results, decreasing nonunion and varus collapse rates. However, the use of dual implants increases implant costs, adds surgical complexity, […]
  • Financial Toxicity Is Common in Patients After Tibia Fracture April 1, 2023
    Objectives: To evaluate the presence of financial distress and identify risk factors for financial toxicity in patients after tibial shaft fracture. Design: A cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Level I trauma center. Patients: All patients within 4 years after tibial shaft fracture (open, closed, or fracture that required flap reconstruction). Intervention: Injury-related financial distress. Main Outcome Measurements: […]
  • Rib Fracture Map in High-Energy Injuries April 1, 2023
    Objectives: To use a novel rib unfurling technology to investigate the locations of multiple rib fractures occurring from high-energy trauma to discern if there are reproducible rib fracture patterns. Methods: Patients between the ages of 18 and 48 years presenting to a Level 1 academic trauma center with ≥2 rib fractures after a high-energy mechanism […]