Diabetic foot

Diabetic Foot

The diabetic foot is one of the complications due to diabetes.
Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder associated with elevated glucose values in the blood, a condition known as hyperglycemia. There are several types: Type 1 diabetes is characterized by a lack of production of insulin from the pancreas, Type 2 diabetes is caused by a lack of insulin response from its target cells (insulin resistance).
In time, diabetes, leads to numerous and serious complications, including the most frequently can manifest a condition known as “diabetic foot”.
The diabetic foot is the result of complications borne by the blood circulation and the peripheral nervous system. The narrowing of the arteries (vasoconstriction) leads to a decrease in the blood supply to the extremities (peripheral arterial disease).
Peripheral arterial disease has as a consequence the lower supply of oxygen and nutrients to the foot; bones and joints tend to weaken, the foot becomes flat and you create new pressure points where the skin may be damaged, these lesions can evolve to true ulceration.
The damage in the peripheral nervous system leading to reduced sensitivity to pain (diabetic neuropathy) are more likely to be injured or difficulty in recognizing situations of suffering (for example not suitable footwear).


Prevention is the best weapon available to the diabetic patient to avoid foot ulcers. It is very important, in the presence of sensory neuropathy, check the status of the foot frequently as in the absence of painful stimuli could, for example, continue to wear an inappropriate shoe that could compromise the health of the foot.
In general it is advisable to follow a few simple rules that can reduce the chances of developing dangerous complications:

  • Thoroughly check your feet every day, making sure that there are no wounds, blisters or areas of irritated and reddened
  • Wash them every day with lukewarm water and dry carefully ensure that no wetlands
  • It is very important to moisturize feet daily with an emollient cream without perfume for maintaining healthy, supple skin
  • use socks (preferably of Scotland thread or cotton) that does not block the movement and change every day
  • keep cutting them short nails straight and always taking care to smooth the ends
  • Use with round toe shoes very comfortable to allow free movement of fingers; Avoid heels higher than 4 cm
  • Do not use open shoes in front and back to prevent small sharp objects hurt his foot
  • Never walk barefoot, even on smooth surfaces
  • Avoid direct exposure to heat sources that could cause burns

RSS Journal of Vascular Surgery