Hair and Growth Cycle

Scalp

Structure

  • Epidermis
    It is he surface layer (basal, spinous, granular and corneum) consists of keratinocytes, cells that produce keratin with protective function
  • Dermis
    It isa a layer rich in blood vessels, which carry nourishment to the hair and ensure the health of the scalp. In it there are the bulbs and sebaceous glands
  • Hypodermis scalp (or scalp)
    It is rich in adipocytes with the function of the biosynthesis of fats, protection and thermal isolation. Here are grafted hair follicles. This layer lying on the epicranic muscle whose contracting moves forward and makes the scalp frown.

Hair

The hair grows from the hair follicle housed in the hypodermis, and for this reason the distance between the point of emergence of the hair on the scalp and the hair can be up to a centimeter. The sebaceous gland, instead, engages in the hair follicle in the dermis, near the epidermis and close to the surface of the scalp. The union of the hair follicle with sebaceous gland creates pilosebaceous apparatus.
Healthy hair and naturally developed are composed of three parts:


  • Drum or stem – It is the outer part to the follicle, visible on the scalp, is also the dead part of the hair, formed from totally keratinized cells which have lost their vital functions, but have acquired resistance thanks to the high concentration of the exceptionally strong protein fibrous, the keratin
  • Root – It is the inner part of the follicle, not visible because it is immersed in the skin of the hair down to the dermis. It is the living part of the hair, which ensures the growth and renewal
  • Hair bulb – It is located in greater depth than the root, in the lower portion of the hair follicle, where the dermal papilla engages, rich in nerve endings and blood vessels, which gives rise to a matrix of germ cells that, reproducing, push up those previously generated. It is during the ascent of the cells towards the skin that occurs keratinization process that stiffens the hair, leads it to death giving rise to the stem

Chemistry of the hair

The analysis by mineralogramma shows that hair consist mainly of keratin and, to a lesser extent, of other three substances: melanin, lipids and minerals.

Hair growth cycle

The cycle of hair growth and regrowth is a physiological process through which the hair is renewed. In fact, during the life of a human being every hair on the scalp repeats its growth cycle many times: born, grows, dies, and reborn. For this reason, the loss of hair daily should be considered physiologic, and should always be proportionate to the particular characteristics of each one and it is influenced by many factors such as seasonality, genetic and hormonal balance.
The cycle of hair growth (or life cycle) consists of 3 phases:
Anagen Phase – Active growth phase (2-6 years)

It is the growth phase of the hair. It lasts from 2 to 4 years in man, and from 5 to 6 years in woman. In healthy hair approximately 85 to 90% of hair is in this phase. The anagen phase is an active phase because the hair never stops growing. In this phase the bulb has a very intense metabolic activity of nourishment and growth. Moreover the dermal papilla is inserted in the fundamental matrix of the hair, directly in contact with the nerve endings and blood capillaries of the dermis that provide oxygen and nutrients to the hair, supporting their rapid regrowth.

Catagen phase – Transition phase (1-2-weeks)

It is the phase of progressive suspension of vital functions of the hair. It lasts about 1-3 weeks, during which time the bulb goes up to the collar and loses its inner epithelial sheath.
The catagen phase is characterized by a rapid decrease of the cell division (mitosis), until its complete stop when the bulb detaches itself slightly from the follicle up towards the surface of the dermis. During the catagen phase hair growth is much slower and decisive. This phase is easily recognizable as hair begin to show the first signs of undernutrition: thinning of the bulb, in relation to the size of the hair shaft. At the end, the bulb is connected to the dermal papilla through a thin column of cells. Meanwhile, even the melanocytes stop their metabolic activity, while the hair reduces its vital functions until either stop completely.

Telogen phase – Resting phase (2-4 months)

It is the resting phase of the hair. It lasts 2-4 months, during which the hair is still in the hair follicle, but its vital activities are completely stopped. The hair has more oxygen and nutrients from the dermal papilla and remains weakly driven into the follicle. The hair has completed its growth phase, and the root of the hair shows a bulb shaped like a “club”, very thinned and with jagged edges. This bulb has become atrophic, and it looks like the head of a pin at the base of the hair. This situation often alarming patients who believe they have lost the part of the hair follicle, which instead has remained deeply in the skin of the hair ready, if all goes well, to start the regrowth of the hair, a new anagen phase.

Usually in healthy hair, about 9-14% is in the telogen phase, if this percentage increases to 20% is a small and incipient alopecia, while a percentage of 30% means that you are in the presence of a strong alopecia . It should be noted that usually in children, the percentage of hairs in the telogen phase does not exceed 5%, and that’s why their hair grows abundant.

RSS International Journal of Trichology

  • Anagen effluvium after methotrexate: An idiosyncratic reaction May 5, 2020
    Preema Sinha, Siddharth Bhatt, Subramaniyan Radhakrishnan, Shekhar Neema, Anwita SinhaInternational Journal of Trichology 2020 12(2):93-96 Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) is the backbone of treatment for extensive psoriasis vulgaris not responding to topical therapy. Since its induction for the treatment of psoriasis in the 1970, its short- and long-term side effect profile has been extensively studied. Hair […]
    Preema Sinha
  • Graham-little-piccardi-lassueur syndrome: Report of a chinese case with hair casts May 5, 2020
    Xiangqian Li, Xi Chen, Jianzhong Zhang, Cheng ZhouInternational Journal of Trichology 2020 12(2):97-98
    Xiangqian Li
  • Woolly hair nevus with trichotillomania in a 9-year-old boy: A rare case association May 5, 2020
    Shivani Saini, Ramesh Kumar, Devendra YadavInternational Journal of Trichology 2020 12(2):86-88 Woolly hair nevus is a rare entity characterized by structural anomaly, which presents as curly hair in a circumscribed area of scalp, in a nonNegroid individual. These are abnormal hairs which are short, thin, and sparse. The term “woolly hair” refers to tightly coiled […]
    Shivani Saini
  • Congenital triangular alopecia - A case report May 5, 2020
    Dhruv Ramanbhai Patel, Jinal Jainendrabhai Tandel, Pragya Ashok NairInternational Journal of Trichology 2020 12(2):89-92 Congenital triangular alopecia also known as temporal triangular alopecia or Brauer nevus may be present at birth or acquired during the first decade of life. It can present as triangular, oval, or lancet-shaped patch of alopecia. It may be misdiagnosed as […]
    Dhruv Ramanbhai Patel
  • Anterior ectopic cilia with myopia and lichen nitidus: A rare case report with dermoscopic findings May 5, 2020
    Alpana Mohta, Aditi Agrawal, Pritee Sharma, Ramesh Kumar Kushwaha, Rajeev Saxena, Rekha Mohta, Suresh Kumar JainInternational Journal of Trichology 2020 12(2):79-81 Ectopic cilia, or lash follicles situated over abnormal sites, are an extremely rare entity. Here, we report the case of a 6-year-old-boy who presented with ectopic cilia over the left upper eyelid along with […]
    Alpana Mohta
  • Trichilemmal carcinoma of scalp masquerading as squamous cell carcinoma: A report of a rare case with histogenesis and literature review May 5, 2020
    Kavitha Kannan, Kiran C Mahesh, Niraimathi Manickam, Anita RamdasInternational Journal of Trichology 2020 12(2):82-85 Trichilemmal carcinoma is a rare malignant adnexal neoplasm of follicular type usually seen over the sun-exposed areas of elderly people. We present a report of a 60-year-old male with ulceroproliferative lesion over the occipital region of the scalp for 2 months, […]
    Kavitha Kannan
  • A study of association of premature graying of hair and osteopenia in North Indian population May 5, 2020
    Soumya Agarwal, Anshul Choudhary, Arushi Kumar, Aliza Zaidi, Swosti Mohanty, Shivani YadavInternational Journal of Trichology 2020 12(2):75-78 Context: Hair graying is one of the signs of human aging and is caused by a progressive loss of pigmentation from growing hair shafts. Studies have shown a correlation of early hair graying with osteopenia, indicating that premature […]
    Soumya Agarwal
  • Trichoscopy as a diagnostic tool for tinea capitis: A prospective, observational study May 5, 2020
    Pradeep Kumar, Deepika Pandhi, Sambit Nath Bhattacharya, Shukla DasInternational Journal of Trichology 2020 12(2):68-74 Background: Tinea capitis is the most common pediatric dermatophyte infection. Trichoscopy aids in the rapid diagnosis and allows prompt treatment, preventing horizontal transmission. Objectives: The objective of this study is to document the trichoscopic features of tinea capitis and evaluate its […]
    Pradeep Kumar